Need Perfect Skin? No Problem! With These Suggestions

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We all need perfect skin, so it is critical to take good care of your skin. The largest organ in your body protects your insides from extreme temperatures and physical contact with things you don’t want inside of you. It is not only beneficial to your health, but it is also a way to maintain a youthful appearance at any age. Continue reading for some helpful hints and shortcuts.

Use a facial mask

Take the time to use a facial mask every now and then. As they dry, facial masks tighten the skin and draw out small impurities. You can buy expensive masks or make your own out of beaten egg whites. Simply apply beaten egg white (avoiding the eye area), wait for it to dry, and then gently wash off with warm water. Your skin will feel revitalised and renewed.

Avoid excessive sun exposure

Avoid excessive sun exposure on your skin. The sun is hotter between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m., so avoid it during that time. You can protect your skin by wearing hats and long pants. Also, apply sunscreen at least 30 minutes before venturing outside.

Seek Out Natural Skincare Products

Use only natural products on your skin. Avoid products with lengthy ingredient lists that read like a chemistry textbook. These are harmful to your body and skin. Triethanolamine (TEA), diethanolamine (DEA), and monoethanolamine are some specific chemicals to avoid (MEA). All three of these chemicals can be found in many US skin care products, but they are not permitted in European countries because they have been linked to cancer!

Your skin is the most important part of your body, and you should always treat it with care. Never rub your skin too hard or wear dirty clothes because this can cause a chain reaction effect on the skin on the rest of your body. Wash your clothes on a regular basis and treat your skin gently.

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Try this facial!

In a small bowl, combine a grated apple and two teaspoons of honey for all-natural skincare. Allow the mixture to sit on a red, inflamed facial breakout for fifteen minutes. Rinse the masque off with warm water, followed by a cool (not cold) water rinse. Redness will be reduced by the natural sugars and enzymes.

Reduce redness in your skin

You could be one of the millions of women who experience facial redness as a result of the weather or a condition such as rosacea. To reduce redness in your skin, first apply a light layer of one of the color-correcting, under-foundation products. These colour correctors, which are typically available in a very pale green colour, visually balance the redness in your face so that by the time your foundation is applied, your skin tone looks more normalised.

Hormones to make your skin appear healthier

There are several plant hormones that can help keep your skin looking healthy and give you a youthful appearance. The majority of these are vegetable estrogens that are applied over time. These hormones have been shown to make your skin appear healthier and more youthful.

Use serums at night rather than in the morning

Apply your most potent serums at night rather than in the morning. What’s the reason? Because your body temperature rises while you sleep, your product will penetrate slightly deeper than it would during the day. You also reduce the possibility of rubbing it off with your hands.

Why you should wash your hair with your head back

When you’re in the shower, it’s easy for the product to drip down the side of your face. Shampoos, conditioners, and body washes, all contain harsh chemicals that can harm your skin. To avoid damaging your skin, try to wash your hair with your head back and away from your face as much as possible.

Use cloth diapers for babies not disposables

If you use a cloth diaper, the skin on your baby’s bottom will be healthier. Cloth diapers allow the skin to breathe and are free of harsh chemicals found in some disposable diapers. Cloth diapers are often made of natural materials, making them softer on your baby’s skin.

Always be gentle

Never wash your face, neck, or back too thoroughly. Washing too frequently can disrupt the contour of your skin’s layers, resulting in excessive burning and peeling. To achieve the best results and maintain a high level of comfort, limit your skin washing to twice per day.

Lip care is vital

When it comes to skincare, don’t forget about the skin on your lips. That skin is extremely thin and must be protected. It may surprise you to learn that the most aggressive forms of skin cancer begin on the lips. Use a lip balm with sunscreen with an SPF of at least 20 every day.

Bathing and cleanliness is only the start!

Bathing is only one aspect of good skin care. If you know a few pointers and follow them religiously, you can make your skin look great and stay healthy for years, if not decades.

Remember what you’ve read here, and your life and skin will be fantastic.


Flirty Texts to Send Your Sagittarius

It’s not always easy to text your crush. There’s a lot of pressure to say the correct thing and not look foolish.

Fortunately for all of us, astrology may provide some direction and insight into the personalities of our crushes. If you have a crush on him, hyou can send these texts to them as outlined below.

“That new eatery in town appears to be interesting. Do you want to go on an adventure?”

Sagittarius loves to explore new things and can’t bear being perceived as anything less than completely daring—and when you combine the two, your chances of success skyrocket. If a new and interesting restaurant has recently opened, take advantage of the opportunity to invite them out and let them prove that they’re actually up for anything. Isn’t it true that they’re not chickens?

“Will you tell the truth or dare?”

Your Sagittarius crush will find it difficult to resist a game of truth or dare. They are recognized for being honest and brave, therefore they are prepared to be players in either case. If they choose “truth,” you can get them to tell you the truth when asking them a personal question. Should they choose “dare,” then you will be able to schedule some one-on-one time with them. A true Sag personality will not back down from either situation.

“I enjoy your company. What are your plans to address it?”

Sagittarius is the plainest sign of the zodiac, and they expect their potential mates to be equally honest and candid with them. This may be a bit frightening text to send, but it will undoubtedly attract their attention and make them recognize your bravery in expressing your feelings. Even if they haven’t previously expressed romantic interest in you, these men may change their opinion simply because you were prepared to put yourself out there. If people already like you, you’re going to get a lot of attention.


Secrets Of The Sagittarius Personality

So, to help you grasp what it truly means to be a Sagittarius, we’ll share some of the most frequent Sagittarius features and characteristics that make up this zodiac sign’s personality today.

1. Sagittarius is an optimist who has big goals.

Sagittarius is a life-loving sign who is optimistic about the future. They find no reason to dwell on their misfortunes and instead concentrate on playing to their strengths.

They’re not scared to aim high, and they’re just insane enough to believe that if they follow their dreams hard enough, they’ll come true.

Read also signs a Sagittarius man doesn’t like you at

2. Sagittarius is forthright and truthful.

Maintain Authenticity and Honesty

The Sagittarius is one of the most straightforward and forthright signs in the zodiac. Some may find them a little too direct at times, but friends frequently find their candor to be a breath of fresh air.

They will tell you the truth and will not sugar coat anything, making them a perfect person to go to when you want nothing but the truth.

3. Sagittarius is a smart and witty sign with a wicked sense of humor.

The Sagittarius has a natural ability to see the absurd and amusing side of life.

They frequently have their friends and people around them in total hysterics due to a blend of observational humor and brutal sarcasm.

4. Sagittarius is self-sufficient and despises being told how to live.

Sagittarius Despises Being Ordered What To Do.

Few things irritate a Sagittarius more than having meaningless restrictions imposed on them by people who have no right to do so.

If you try to regulate their every action or question them about everything, they will quickly distance themselves.

5. Sagittarius is a restless and irritable sign.

Sagittarius desires everything right now and is always prepared to go after the next huge thing.

If things don’t move at the pace that Sagittarius prefers, they can become dissatisfied and cranky.


Libra Man Traits

Man in the sign of Libra

We’re here to talk about zodiac sign compatibility. Okay, you want to know if the individual is a good fit for you. You can receive the most detailed information by comparing your birth charts. Knowing your zodiac sign and the nature of your connection, on the other hand, is a good guideline.

Of course, all zodiac signs can date, but not all couples have the same potential for a peaceful relationship.

Everything is possible; numerous things influence the two people’s connection. Nonetheless, zodiac signs can reveal a lot about a person. We’ve paired a Libra guy and a Pisces woman to see how they get along. Is this an ideal pair, or is this love doomed? So, let us learn more about each of them.

He is, without a doubt, a charming and lovable personality. A Libra man is likely to be one of the kindest and most easygoing gentlemen in the zodiac. A Libra man is a philanthropist and a social butterfly. He is outgoing and communicative.

His outlook on life is upbeat, and he always opts for a peaceful solution to difficulties.

If other people are squabbling, the Libra man will normally try to quiet things down. He is attentive, clever, and capable of handling tough situations with ease. It is quite unlikely that a Libra would create drama and scandal about little matters. The Libra guy is a diplomat who frequently works as a mediator.

His social abilities are exceptional, and he is well-liked by others.

The Libra man, on the other hand, does not seek attention. He might feel uneasy if he needs to speak in front of a larger audience, for example. Libra guy is intolerant of injustice, despite his non-aggressive and relaxing demeanor. He pursues justice for everybody whose rights have been abused in any way, whether it is a fight between friends or something far more serious.

He has a friendly, generous, and laid-back nature that you can always turn to and talk to. The Libra guy does not grumble about his personal issues, yet he is not too proud to seek assistance if necessary. In fact, he may be a little too relaxed back. He sometimes misses out on fantastic possibilities because he takes things for granted.

Check out how to make a libra man want you back at

However, the Libra guy is aware of his weaknesses and would improve on them so that he may be more successful the following time. The Libra man appreciates being creative and feels at ease in a variety of settings. He is an excellent team player, yet he prefers his own space. In terms of materiality, the Libra man is adaptable and moderate in his demands.

He is content with a secure and steady life, and he is not particularly good with money. He is disorganized, and it just so happens that he has spent all of his money before the next month’s pay.

Nonetheless, he does not make a big deal out of it and maintains a feeling of responsibility. He will work hard and not grumble if necessary.


Compatibility between a Libra woman and a Libra man

Everything suggests that the union between a Libra woman and a Libra man will be the image of total success.

Belonging to the same sign, they have a lot in common that brings them together and consolidates their relationshipOn the taste side, they appreciate the same values, they like to look after their appearance by choosing beautiful clothes. They arrange their interior well so that beauty reigns there.

They are very open to those around them, so much so that they suffer from being locked in their love nest even if they manage to install perfection there. Their sense of justice gives them a tolerant character, they know how to be conciliatory and they thus attract the sympathy of the people around them.

Through their common love of harmony, they avoid harming each other. 

But this concern could be a weak point in their relationshipThey will not be able to correct themselves and instead of having a smooth life, they will be able to move towards indifference. This will deteriorate their understandingThey may also encounter problems in their conception of love. They both love little love affairs and can’t help but browse left and right. But despite their understanding, they will eventually no longer support their own behavior and jealousy will lie in wait for them, a negative feeling that will harm their harmony. As Libra indecisive and incapable of deciding, the woman will reproach her man precisely for his indecision and his lack of firmness. She will not be able to expect from him the help which will encourage her to express her judgment. They will therefore have to make an effort on their own to overcome this situation and to safeguard this harmony that they have been able to establish. However, they are ready to do anything to protect their home if it is threatened by external elements. 

Discover how to tell if a libra man likes you

Professionally, they are also ready to support each other if one of them has difficulty in making the decision to join. They will therefore form a couple whose cohesion will be the envy of others.


Ear wax removal using Microsuction

It is not advised that wax is cleared by the use of cotton buds, as this very often pushes it towards the eardrum and can cause even more problems and it is difficult to remove. you should never poke anything down your ear with the view of relieving the problem yourself; the lining of the ear is very delicate and can easily be damaged. There are home removal kits available, however, these need to be used carefully. Hopi ear candles just don’t work, it is a sham. leave it to one of our registered clinical specialists to remove the wax for you.

Ear wax removal is carried out as a day case procedure, so there is no need to stay in hospital overnight.

Unlike ear syringing or even the safer ear irrigation, there is no water used, which means less mess generally. When undertaking micro-suction, the canal and the ear wax is being directly viewed with a microscope or a set of loupes (microscopic glasses) whilst it is being removed. This makes the procedure much quicker, safer and comfortable for the patient.

Wax microsuction is the gold standard ear wax removal technique. It involves the use of an air suction device at low operating pressure to remove wax from the ear, all performed under an operating microscope. It is the safest and quickest means to conveniently remove ear wax and allows full visualisation of the ear canal so that any touching of the sensitive skin layer or fine hairs within the ear canal can, in most instances, be avoided.

As the ears are self-cleaning, we recommend that you should never use cotton buds or insert anything in your ears as this is likely to cause further problems. If you’re creating excessive amounts of ear wax and have a build-up, this is when ear wax removal is required.

Although the ear has a natural mechanism for the removal of wax it is recognised that certain people do experience problems with accumulation of excess wax that may require additional help. Factors such as narrow, hairy or obstructed ear canals, hearing aid or earplug use, as well as dusty/dirty occupations all contribute to a build-up of earwax and using cotton buds only serves to push the debris back in further, often impacting the wax in the process. This can give rise to deafness, tinnitus, vertigo, pain and or discharge.

Simple And Safe Microsuction Ear Cleaning Service

Micro-suction ear wax removal is one of the safest methods of ear cleaning and it is an ideal method of wax removal for people who have had a perforation to their eardrum or who have had any mid-ear surgery. Microsuction uses no water for the ear wax removal and there is no mess and little fuss.

Ear wax removal by microsuction

Our registered nurses have specialist training in ear wax removal using microsuction allowing us to offer a fast, safe and high-quality service to adults and children. ear canalMicrosuction is a wax removal technique using a precision suction apparatus to suction unwanted or obstructing skin cells and wax from the ear canal. We use surgical lenses which provide binocular magnification so that the tip of the suction tube is always under direct vision.

Ear wax removal by microsuction is the safest most effective method for the removal of ear wax from ear canals. Due to the nature of the suction, ear wax can be removed from the ear, irrespective of whether it is soft or hard. This differs from other methods such as syringing and water irrigation where wax has to be treated beforehand with drops to encourage a softer consistency.

A comprehensive medical history will be taken a microscopic examination of the inner ear canals and eardrums gentle removal of the earwax with a surgical microsuction unit. The audiologist will wear a pair of illuminated microscopes, namely “loupes”, and air will be heard gently rushing through the suction wand during the procedure. There may be an occasional mild ‘pop’ as the wax is sucked through the probe.

Ear Wax Removal – Microsuction and Ear Syringing

Unlike other ear wax removal techniques such as ear syringing or ear irrigation, you will not need to do any preparation work before you visit us. While it may help to use ear drops before the removal, it is not necessary because our equipment will be able to remove it safely.


Earwax is naturally occurring and serves an important purpose. On occasion, earwax can build in the ear canal and can cause hearing loss or discomfort. For many people, microsuction offers a quick and long-lasting solution to hearing loss. years of excess wax build-up can be gently removed – providing an immediate improvement to their quality of life.  It helps to protect and clean the inside of the ear by creating a natural protective layer. Other wax removal treatments such as syringing often completely clear the canal of all wax, leaving no protective layer inside the ear. Microsuction is a much more controlled treatment which allows your audiologist to carefully remove excess wax whilst preserving a necessary level of protection.

Unlike ear syringing or ear irrigation, where ear wax is flushed out ‘blindly’, with microscopic and microsuction ear wax removal the ear wax is being directly visualised under the microscope whilst it is being removed. This makes the procedure much quicker, safer and comfortable for the patient. 

Microsuction Ear Wax Removal

micro-suction earwax removal

Using our services ensures that you have your earwax removed safely, quickly and by a person you can trust. The process is usually over in a few minutes and the majority of people find it easy and comfortable. The technique is the safest way to remove earwax as the professional can see everything they are doing during the removal.

Following an initial discussion regarding your health and hearing, we begin by examining your ears using a fibre optic camera. The camera sits just at the entrance of the ear and enables both you and the audiologist to view your ear canal and eardrum on a large screen. We will examine both ears, before proceeding with any wax removal required. Following treatment, we will show you your ear canals and drums again, this time without any wax blockage.

Ear Wax Removal – Microsuction

Microsuction is a procedure which uses gentle suction to remove excessive or troublesome earwax. It is performed with the aid of an operating microscope and a finely calibrated suction device, without the introduction of any materials or liquids. You may be asked to use olive oil spray or drops for several days beforehand. This will make the treatment easier for you. Occasionally we may need to use other instruments to remove hard wax. The technique means that we can always see what we are doing and can avoid touching the skin of the sides of the ear canal which makes the process a lot more comfortable.


Tips and Tricks to Remember your Lessons

Holding back your lessons is not innate. Even if you reread them over and over again, you don’t always manage to integrate them. Do not panic! There are ways to focus well and get involved in learning. Here are some principles that could help you get back on your feet.

“Memorizing a lesson is not enough.” Here is the basic principle advocated by Hélène Weber, a psycho-sociologist who, when she is not teaching students in engineering schools, explains to your teachers how to motivate you. She gives us her best advice to learn lessons effectively.

# 1. To understand well

“To learn well as a student, you first need to understand what you are learning. But you also need to know what your teachers’ goals are. In other words, the lessons need to be meaningful to you . ‘is that after that, that you will be able to grasp “tips” to memorize better, and faster. 

So if you don’t see the point of a lesson or what to take away from it, go see your teacher and ask. Please do not hesitate to ask for clarification. Not only will it show that you are interested in the course, but also that you are mature.

# 2. Find his place

To learn, you must also have found your place within the establishment. This assumes that you feel good in your body, that you have friends, good relations with the teachers but also that you know why you go to class in the morning. It may be simply to get good grades, to move up to the next grade, or even because you want a specific education. No matter the motivation, big or small, what it takes is to have it.

But, if you’re not feeling well in middle or high school, say so! To an adult in the establishment (CPE, education assistant, teacher, home tutor, nurse, etc.) or outside (parents, grandparents, doctor, etc.), in any case, to someone who you trust. 

# 3. Believe in your abilities

To learn, you need to believe in yourself and in your abilities. You have to: to convince yourself of it, you just need to pay attention to what you are doing well rather than focusing on what you are missing. The exercise is not as simple as it seems because in your copies it is most often the errors that are pointed out.

When you learn a lesson or review a math test, set goals small at first, then higher and higher. It’s like climbing a mountain. From below, the effort may seem overwhelming, but if you think in stages, then anything becomes possible. 

# 4. Memory cards

There are techniques for memorizing such as mind mapping, which helps to understand and therefore learn lessons. Or else, memory cards (“flashcard”). These are particularly well suited for memorizing keywords, vocabulary, irregular verbs …

The principle is simple: you take a sheet that you cut into eight. On each small card, you write down information on the front and associated information on the back (it can be “tree” on the front and “tree” on the back / A math theorem on the front, its formula on the back). You take as many cards as you want. Once you’re done, you reread each card. Secondly, you reread it only on the front and try to remember the back. You repeat this operation twice, then you repeat the next day and on a regular basis.

Advantages of this method: it is quite fun. And writing the keywords forces you to select important course information. In addition, playing multiple times will reactivate your memory. However, no memorization without reactivation (repetitions) at a regular frequency. If you learn your lesson all at once, you might remember it for control but hardly beyond!


Playful materials to learn geography

Some children are passionate about geography, but for most, it is a boring subject that involves memorizing many names and locations. However, it doesn’t always have to be this way, there are some playful tools that can help children learn geography while having fun. Here are some playful materials that you can use at home to motivate children to learn geography.

Children’s materials to make geography a game

1. World Map

World maps are a very useful cartographic tool to motivate children to learn geography. Through them, you can form a clearer idea of ​​what our planet is like and how the continents, countries, cities, oceans, and seas are distributed in the world. The best thing is that there are many world maps for children to choose the ones that interest them the most, from political and physical world maps to geological and topographic world maps.

2. Globe puzzle

What kid wouldn’t like to build his own globe? With the globe puzzles, they will have the opportunity to shape their own world ball while learning which continent each country is on and where the different oceans and seas are located. It is a very useful educational resource for children who are starting to study geography since they can check their knowledge by assembling the globe over and over again.

3. Cork world map

The cork world maps are a very valuable resource to learn geography since, by not having the contours of the borders, they allow children to test their knowledge about the location of countries, cities, or regions. In fact, they can be used as a game board for children to have fun identifying as many sites as possible.

4. World map for coloring

The world maps to color are an excellent option to introduce the little ones to the study of geography. It is a very useful material for children to become familiar with the maritime and land borders that make up our planet and motivate them to investigate the world in which they live. In addition, they allow them to train their fine motor skills and develop hand-eye coordination.

If you would like to hire a home tutor to teach your child geography, you can visit Tuition Domain to find one.


The Best Tips for Learning Languages


How do I improve my listening comprehension?

1. Watch series and films

Do you know that: Are you looking forward to a cozy evening with popcorn and a great movie? But the synchronization does not correspond to your ideas at all?

Then don’t worry about it for long, go to the language settings and watch your series and films in the original language with Tamil subtitles.

Depending on your level, you can even leave out the subtitles and immerse yourself completely in your new language. So grab your popcorn and make yourself comfortable with a film in your preferred language.

Good to know:

While watching a film you will get a feel for common idioms and improve your listening comprehension.


2. Learn languages ​​with audiobooks

Go looking for exciting audiobooks and not only improve your language skills, but also immerse yourself in new exciting stories.

So let’s go: Find an exciting radio play, put on your headphones, and immerse yourself in another language.

Good to know: 

Listening helps you understand the language. The more you listen to them, the better you will understand connections and thus train your listening skills.


3. Watch international news 

Do you often watch the daily news at 8:00 p.m. and want to be informed about current events? Then combine that with learning languages.

If you want to know what is happening in politics or what new reforms have been launched, just switch on the international news in your preferred language from now on.

In this way, you will find out about daily political news from all over the world and improve your language skills at the same time.

4. Talk to yourself

Talking to yourself might sound a bit crazy at first, but just give it a try: Stand in front of the mirror or make yourself comfortable on the sofa and formulate all the thoughts and ideas that are floating around in your head in your desired language.

Just let yourself be surprised by your own ideas and talk to people you have always wanted to get to know.

Good to know:

Talking to yourself will help you kill 3 birds with one stone when learning a language: Your use of the language will become more fluent, you will practice your pronunciation and you will expand your vocabulary.


5. Read aloud

Already read a book in Tamil? Then just read it out loud.

You can either speak into the empty room or ask your roommates or friends if they would like to listen to you. The main thing is that you speak aloud in a foreign language you are learning. So: open your book or newspaper and off you go!


6 Best Books About Time Travel – A Brief History of the Genre

So far this year, we’ve looked forward in time to consider the books that will be coming out this month, then travelled back in time to the very beginnings of science fiction. Since we’re still recovering from this literary jetlag, it seems only appropriate to look at the history of this literary device. We’ve picked five representative novels (and one collection) as the focus for this history, but we’re certainly not going to confine our attention to just these works.

1: The Time Machine by H.G. Wells

From the moment when writers started paying attention to the fact that the future will be as different from the present as the present is different from the past, it was inevitable that they would conjure some way of taking their protagonists through time. At first these tended to be quasi-magical devices. In Washington Irving’s story, Rip Van Winkle sleeps into the future (a more sophisticated version of which would recur, for example, in The Sleeper Awakes by H.G. Wells), while in Mark Twain’s A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court, the hero is knocked out in the present and comes to in the past.

The first mechanical means of travelling through time was possibly The Time Ship by Enrique Gaspar, a little-known novel that tried to replicate the extraordinary voyages of Jules Verne, taking the travellers to colourful and romantic moments in the past. More significant was H.G. Wells’s first novel, The Time Machine, which was an immediate and massive success and helped to create the idea of controlled travel through time that became a key element in subsequent science fiction.


One of the indications of how important The Time Machine was in the history of science fiction is the number of times it has been the basis for sequels by other hands, novels that take Wells’s time machine but then add a twist of their own. Examples include The Space Machine by Christopher Priest in which The Time Machine is merged with The War of the WorldsThe Time Ships by Stephen Baxter in which the travellers move so far forward in time that they pass through the end of the universe; and A Scientific Romance by Ronald Wright which travels into an ecologically changed future.

2: Time and Again by Jack Finney

In retrospect, one of the curiosities about Wells’s novel is that he uses the machine to travel into the future. The many writers who picked up on the idea of a time machine and started turning out their own time travel adventures almost invariably chose to send their heroes into the past. There are plenty of reasons for this: a little historical research would provide a colourful arena for a romantic adventure, paradoxes could be worked into the mix, and the prospect of changing history provided a ready cause of dramatic tension.


Early examples of such ventures into the past included Lest Darkness Fall by L. Sprague de Camp, in which a time traveller to ancient Rome attempted to prevent the Dark Ages (a story by William Golding, “Envoy Extraordinary”, in his collection The Scorpion God, also features a time traveller bringing advanced technology to ancient Rome); The Technicolor Time Machine by Harry Harrison had a film crew travelling to the past to film an authentic Viking epic; and Hawksbill Station by Robert Silverberg, in which the prehistoric past became a prison for political exiles.

Perhaps the most effective of these quasi-romantic views of the past was Time And Again by Jack Finney, in which a discontented time traveller from the 1970s present is sent back to New York in the early 1880s on a mission to change the past. Finney incorporates contemporary photographs of New York in order to create a vivid, lived-in sense of what it was like to be in the city at that period in history.

3: Replay by Ken Grimwood

The possibility of going into the past to change history, of course, opened up all sorts of time paradoxes. The classic formulation is the Grandfather Paradox: what if you went into the past and killed your own grandfather so that you were never born? Straight formulations of the paradox haven’t really generated much in the way of interesting science fiction, but the idea has given rise to a whole subset of time travel stories about the Time Police who are charged with stopping people changing history. Examples of the type include Times Without Number by John Brunner, Up The Line by Robert Silverberg, and, more recently, The Tourist by Robert Dickinson.


Usually, such efforts to control time fail, which ends up with a proliferation of times and realities, as in Transition by Iain Banks or Lost Futures by Lisa Tuttle. The Man Who Folded Himself by David Gerrold seems to include just about every possible time paradox.


The problem with time generating such paradoxes, of course, is that it becomes a trap. This usually takes the form of a loop in which things are repeated, sometimes on a broad scale as in A Tale of Time City by Diana Wynne Jones, but usually on a more personal level. In Replay, by Ken Grimwood, a man dies and wakes again as an 18-year-old, but with all of his memories intact, he then replays his life from 18 to his death over and over again, each time with small but significant variations. The later film, Groundhog Day, has much the same premise, but it is a single day that is replayed. In Life After Life by Kate Atkinson, a woman exists through countless variations of her own life, while in The First Fifteen Lives of Harry August by Claire North the hero finds himself part of a whole society that live their lives over and over again.

4: Kindred by Octavia Butler

In time, perhaps because of the possibilities for change and for entrapment offered by the idea of time paradoxes, the straightforward adventurous journey into the past became darker. The past was no longer a colourful setting but rather a place of danger. In truth, a person from the present is unlikely to survive long if suddenly transported to anything other than the recent past, but it seemed to take a long time for science fiction writers to recognise that life in the past is likely to be nasty, brutish and short.

Eventually, however, authors began to use the past not as a way of finding adventure, but as a way of confronting terrors. The most powerful example of this is probably Kindred by Octavia Butler, in which a modern black woman finds herself transported back into a slaveholding America.

Other variations on the idea of an unwelcoming past include Doomsday Book by Connie Willis, in which a near-future researcher finds herself trapped in the Middle Ages just as the Black Death strikes. While The Cusanus Game by Wolfgang Jeschke sees the past as a possible source of aid for a damaged future, only for time to reassert itself.

5: A Woman on the Edge of Time by Marge Piercy

Another form that time travel sometimes takes is less direct contact but rather a psychological link across time. In such stories, there is always the possibility that the apparent time travel is no more than a manifestation of some psychosis. But in its broadest terms, that is probably true of all time travel stories. The best example of this form is A Woman on the Edge of Time by Marge Piercy, in which a contemporary woman confined in a mental hospital finds herself in contact with an emissary from a future feminist utopia.


Other ways in which time travel does not include physical contact is by way of a time viewer, a device by which an observer can watch but not interact with a different time. The finest examples of this are probably the slow glass stories of Bob Shaw collected in Other Days, Other Eyes, though an intriguing later development of the idea was Light of Other Days by Stephen Baxter and Arthur C. Clarke.

6: The Time Traveler’s Almanac edited by Ann & Jeff VanderMeer

The thing about time travel is that it often works best in short fiction. Which explains why there are quite a lot of time travel anthologies out there. The best of them, because the most comprehensive, is probably The Time Traveler’s Almanac edited by Ann & Jeff VanderMeer, if only for a selection of such classic stories as “Another Story” by Ursula K. Le Guin, “The Gernsback Continuum” by William Gibson, “A Sound of Thunder” by Ray Bradbury, “Vintage Season” by Henry Kuttner and C.L. Moore, and “Enoch Soames” by Max Beerbohm. But even so you will need to keep your eyes out elsewhere for such important time travel stories as “By His Bootstraps” by Robert Heinlein, “Chronopolis” by J.G. Ballard, “The Very Slow Time Machine” by Ian Watson, and “A Little Something for Us Tempunauts” by Philip K. Dick.

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